A temperament is a primary way of managing emotions and feelings and how you prefer to think. It's perhaps best described as your "comfort zone" - what kind of thinking you prefer to engage in and how you prefer to process and express emotions. Now, the interesting thing is that none of these emotional responses are better or worse than the other, and that none of these states are necessarily more accurate. It can rather be described as a blindspot, that we will believe one comes before the other.
Internal or external emotions
Do you see emotions coming from within, do you think you are responsible for your own feelings, or do you see emotions coming from the outside, your environment, and what you see other people doing?
Introverted temperaments (I)
Some people believe their emotions come from within, and that the way they feel is a direct result of what they think and who they are. They will spend more time "correcting" their own thoughts and beliefs.
Extraverted temperaments (E)
Other people believe their emotions are a result of their outer environment. What in their life is wrong or what is not the way it is supposed to be? What could be fixed in my external environment or who or what is at fault or to thank for me feeling this way?
Controlled or free-flow emotions
Do you see emotions as something to be controlled, honed, and directed towards a long-term goal? Or would you rather move directly towards a feeling or in relation to what you feel to directly achieve the result you want?
Controlled emotions (J)
A person that does not need to get immediate closure as quickly on their emotions and how they feel, is more comfortable controlling and employing their emotions with care. A fleeting, suddenly emerging emotional state is regarded as less important, where long-term emotional results are considered to be of primary importance.
Free-flow emotions (P)
When you prefer to have quick or immediate feedback on how you feel and when you take emotions more seriously as a guide to direct action, you are more likely to be a perceiving type. Perceivers recognise how emotions drive action and feel immediate emotional feedback when something is wrong.
The Leader (IXXJ)
"To me, happiness is an ambition, and this ambition is best explored within yourself."
You will find the leader to compose and focus their emotions towards particular goals or ideals. As a leader, you believe your emotional health and well being is a result of what you think and who you are, not where you live or what kind of environment or outer results you are able to attain. A leader has strong inner standards on what is good and bad, and has a tendency to believe there is a "right and wrong" way to feel.
The Executive (EXXJ)
"Happiness is the result of what you do and who you are able to achieve in the world."
Executives see emotions as something to be guided towards a goal or a long-term result. Emotions are ideally focused and honed carefully and directed. Executives will generally move to attain objective goals and to clean up and fix bad things in their environment, and the executives believe their emotional state is the direct fault or thanks to their environment or objective state.
The Advisor (IXXP)
"I believe happiness is found within, often in the small, surprising things."
As an introvert, you believe your emotions are a direct reflection of your inner world, your thoughts, and how you see the world. Introverts will therefore work to search truth inside, the right perspective or mindset that can bring happiness and peace with one's environment.
As a perceiving type, it's important for you to have quick closure on an emotion and to not hold it back for too long, but to express emotions openly when felt.
The Explorer (EXXP)
"The world around me is a reflection of my emotional state."
As an extravert, you see your emotional state as a reflection of your life and your environment. Your happiness or anger or pain is a direct result of the room and the environment you live in. When you feel something, you would rather react on the emotion immediately, than sit behind and wait for it to pass. Explorers are generally emotionally open and free types who know exactly why they feel what they feel and how to manage their emotions in the moment.