The Four Temperaments


The Explorer – Active types

The Explorer has the highest conscious attention of all the types, but the lowest working memory. This means they absorb and learn a lot from their surroundings but that they spend less time focusing on their to-do-list and planned tasks.

They have a high ability to control their own motivation and what they find fun and interesting. It can be difficult for an explorer type to control their attention and what they pay attention to – their attention is free-flow, but it is also broad, open, and very little tends to escape them.

The Explorer is always scrolling through ongoing activities around them. The words people say, the things they learn, explorers don’t need an incentive to learn or listen to something and are generally more open-minded to new information.

Explorer questions:

  • Why is this happening?
  • What is going on around me?
  • Is there anything I’m missing out on?

The Leader – Focused types

The Leader has the lowest conscious attention of all the types, but the highest working memory. This means they miss a lot of what happens around them, but that they have a high ability to focus on their to-do list and planned tasks. They are overall fairly motivated and productive types but they struggle to control what they find motivating and interesting.

It is easy for a Leader to control their own attention and what they focus on – their attention is self-regulated. Because they have a high working memory, they can still navigate day to day situations well. They learn what is important to focus on and what is necessary and they tune out whenever it’s not.

The Leader is always scrolling through their own working memory and their lists of tasks and goals in any situation. They need a purpose to listen before they can actively listen. They need a reason why to pay attention to pay attention to something. They shut out anything unrelated to their goals.

Leader questions:

  • What is my purpose here?
  • What did I come here to do?
  • Did I forget to do something important?

The Executive – Productive types

The Executive has the highest motivation of all the types but a lower ability to control and manage their emotions and their energy. They overall have a high attention span but a low working memory. It is difficult for an Executive to control what they find motivating and stimulating.

The Executive avoids brainstorming for and against and seeks to make decisions more quickly. The decisions are based on the gut and what is most appealing in the moment. Sometimes they can lack clarity and foresight in decision making, failing to think things through before they make a decision.

Executive questions:

  • Why isn’t anything being done?
  • What seems to be the problem here?
  • What can I do about it?

The Advisor – Reflective types

The Advisor has the lowest conscious motivation of all the types, but an extremely high ability to control and manage their own emotions and their energy. They overall have a high working memory and an ability to focus and control their attention. It is easy for an advisor to control their own motivation and to decide how they want to feel about a subject.

The Advisor is constantly thinking about why to do or not to do something. They are brainstorming motives for and against and making pro-con lists. This can impair decision making and productivity but ensures that they go in with a clear motive towards a good direction.

Advisor questions:

  • Why am I doing what I am doing?
  • What is my point here?
  • What do I think about being here?