What are the four temperaments?
We believe the sixteen types can be divided into four distinct temperaments. These are similar to the historical temperaments. There are the melancholics, which we call the leader types, the sanguine types, which we call the explorers, the choleric types, that we call executives, and then the phlegmatic types, which we call the advisors. You’ve probably met them when working on a group project. The scattered brainstormer with new ideas, the one that takes all the responsibility, the one that keeps discussing everything over and over, and the one that acts like a know-it-all.
The Four Temperaments
The Leader (IXXJ)
While traditionally, people have seen leaders as extroverts, increasingly, science suggests introverts are better leaders.
We have found that the primary quality of a leader is to be able to think independently about a situation, without asking or discussing things with others, and to be able to anticipate problems and plan around them before they come up. We believe IXXJs tend to prefer leader roles over the other roles, but they can be forced to adapt to any role, depending on what the others in the group want.
The Explorer (EXXP)
The Explorer is well able to spot and see new things in their environment. Because they’re more open-minded, they see and hear more, and they are able to react quicker to new problems. Explorers are besides this adaptive, they solve problems as they come up, and they are well able to improvise even for things they can’t expect. While they prefer to be open and free from responsibility, if they must, they can adjust and take on other roles.
The Executive (EXXJ)
Another extrovert is the executive. The executive plans ahead and anticipates problems in their immediate situation. They’re attentive to the group and to what others say. They involve everyone in their decisions. They’re good for overcoming obstacles on the way to their plans. They are proactive and push forward without holding back. While they like to be the drivers, pushing the group forward, they can take on other roles if they must.
The Advisors (IXXP)
These introverts fill the role of experts, they often think deeply about problems in their environment. They study their area rigurously, mastering all the routines. They reflect on bad habits, inefficient routines, and they try to come up with better ways to do things. They’re good at solving problems on the spot and respond better to distractions, and they think before they act.